1. NUTRIENT FERTILIZER AND MANURE USE IN THE DANUBE RIVER BASIN
REPORT TITLE : Inventory of Fertilizer and Manure Use in the DRB Countries with Reference to Land Management Practices (February 2004)
- Historical overview of fertilizer and manure use in the DRB
- List of most commonly marketed and used fertilizers in the basin
- List of problems in use and 'bad agricultural practices'
- Potential for reducing environmental impacts through reforming national agricultural policies in the EU context
- Adopting EU legislation
- Financial incentives
- Cross-compliance measures
- List of good agricultural practices
- Three overall recommendations for policy reform for DRB national governments
- National reports from 11 Danube countries
It begins with an overview of fertilizer and manure use in the DRB, including how historical factors have led to recent use decreases, and a list of most commonly marketed and used fertilizers in the basin. A list of problems and 'bad agricultural practices' follows, for example, improper storage of manure or an agricultural workforce uneducated in good agricultural practices.
The potential for reducing environmental impacts through reforming national agricultural policies in the EU context is then examined. This includes a look at adopting EU legislation such as the Water Framework Directive, Nitrates Directive and Groundwater Directive as well as their obligations and shortcomings. Financial incentives for pollution control, such as from the EU's Rural Development Programme and SAPARD, are suggested. It also promotes cross-compliance measures - in other words, the imposition of environmental conditions on farmers to receive governmental assistance.
A list of good agricultural practices are offered such as avoiding the run-off of applied fertilizers to surface waters, or sowing winter crops in early autumn.
The report concludes with three overall recommendations for policy reform for DRB national governments. The first is to establish well-funded research programmes. The second is to develop appropriate policy instruments and institutional arrangements for promoting better fertilizer and manure management, such as raising farmer awareness and promoting national codes of good practice. Finally, certified organic farming is promoted as an alternative to conventional farming.
This report is based on an assessment of responses made by national governments in 11 Danube countries to a questionnaire. It asked about the most commonly used nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) fertilizers nationally, as well as their total consumption and the characteristics of their use (e.g. amounts typically applied and when used during the year), including known bad practices. All national reports are included in annexes.
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